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Leukemia
Overview

Leukemia is blood cancer. The bone marrow has a job of forming new blood cells. When you have leukemia, some of the blood cells that form are cancerous and take over the space that healthy blood cells occupy.
The statistics for leukemia are startling. Here are some quick facts about leukemia:
Over 310,000 people in the U.S. have leukemia
Every four minutes, someone in the U.S. is diagnosed with a form of blood cancer
Hispanic children and teenagers are the most common group to suffer from leukemia
Leukemia is the number one cause of death due to cancer in children
Blood cancer will cause around 55,000 deaths due to cancer this year alone
Leukemia has different types:
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia. Creates “immature” blood cells and most common in children.
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia. Affects myeloid blood cells and is rapidly progressive. Common in both children and adults.
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. Affects white blood cells known as “lymphocytes.” Slow growing and common in adults.
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia. Slow growing with little to no symptoms and affects mostly adults.
Most cases of leukemia are found in adults over the age of 55, but also very common in kids less than 15 years old.

What Causes Leukemia?

Researchers have not completely found the cause of leukemia, but they do understand somewhat how it happens. They have found mutations in the DNA of the cancer cells. This causes abnormalities where the cells grow, divide, and continue living in the bloodstream where blood cells are normally shed. The abnormal cells eventually take up space where healthy cells should be. This means less white blood cells to fight infection, less red blood cells, and less platelets leading to blood disorders. The symptoms of leukemia stem from these resulting disorders.

Leukemia Symptoms

The symptoms of leukemia result from low blood cell counts. They include:
Easy bruising
Fatigue
Weakness
Dizziness
Shortness of breath
Unexplained fevers
Infections
Frequent nosebleeds
Bleeding gums
Weight loss
Night sweats
Loss of appetite
Abdominal swelling – Leukemia cells in the spleen and liver
Enlarged lymph nodes
Bone pain
Joint pain
Headaches
Seizures
Vomiting
Feeling off balance

Because of the wide range of symptoms, leukemia can often go undiagnosed, misdiagnosed or the symptoms could have causes other than leukemia.

Leukemia Risk Factors

There are certain risk factors that increase the chances of getting leukemia. These are:
Family History. If you have a family history of leukemia, you are at higher risk for getting it.
Smoking. Smokers have a higher risk for leukemia.
History of Treated Cancer. Chemotherapy and radiation treatments for cancer increase the risk of leukemia.
Genetic Conditions. Certain genetic conditions increase the risk of leukemia.

How is Leukemia Diagnosed?

If you or someone close to you has any of the above symptoms, see a doctor as soon as possible. The doctor will take a medical history, symptom list and how long you have had them, and ask if you have any of the above risk factors. Before going to the doctor, gather as much family history as possible.
You will most likely have a very thorough exam to check lymph nodes and check for signs of bruising and bleeding. The doctor will also check your liver and spleen. Then, the following blood tests will be ordered:
Complete Blood Count. This checks for counts of all the red and white blood cells. They will also look at the blood under a microscope to look for abnormal cells. Too many immature white blood cells is often a clue to diagnosing leukemia.
Blood Chemistry. The doctor will check your liver and kidneys that are affected by leukemia.
Coagulation Studies. Problems with blood clotting can indicate leukemia.
DNA Testing. They can check for DNA abnormalities in the cells and look for the changes that cause leukemia.
If any of the blood studies suggest leukemia, the doctor will move forward with more testing to confirm the diagnosis. These tests include:
Bone Marrow Biopsy. The doctor will insert a needle into the bone and take a sample of the marrow. They use a local anesthetic and pass a very thin needle into a hip or pelvic bone. There is a brief pain during aspiration. The doctor will then take a small “punch” out of the bone to send off to the lab with the marrow. A pathologist and hematologist will look at the sample to check the shape and size of the cells. They can diagnose and tell what type of leukemia at that time.
Imaging Tests CT Scan, MRI, PET, and Bone Scan may only be performed if the doctor thinks the cancer has spread to the organs. Since leukemia is a blood cancer, imaging studies are of little use in initial diagnosis.

Leukemia Treatment

Prior to treatment, the doctor will determine the type of leukemia you have and how advanced your case is. Depending on these things, treatment will include:
Chemotherapy. The first line of treatment for leukemia is chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is either medicine given intravenously in an infusion center or by pill. Sometimes only one drug is given and sometimes multiple drugs are used.
Radiation. This is high dose x-rays that stop the growth of leukemia cells. This is also done before stem cell transplants.
Biological Therapy. Biological medications boost your immune system to fight off the cancer cells in the blood.
Targeted Therapy. These drugs go straight to the cancer cells and attack them so they cannot divide and grow.
Stem Cell Transplant. This procedure transplants healthy bone marrow into the disease bone marrow. This is done after chemotherapy and radiation to get rid of as much unhealthy bone marrow as possible. Then stem cells are introduced from a relative or matched donor. These grow into healthy cells and replace the cancer cells.

Alternative Medicine for Leukemia

Alternative medicine is not a known cure for any type of cancer including, leukemia. However, alternative medicine can complement cancer treatment with your doctor’s okay. Some helpful things you can try are:
Reduce Allergens. This helps keep the immune system in balance.
Exercise as Tolerated. Try not to fatigue yourself with exercise, but do enough to keep yourself healthy.
Include Antioxidants in Your Diet. Eat cherries, blueberries, kale, spinach, and bright colored peppers to detox your system.
Eat Organic. Avoid refined and processed foods and chemical pesticides.
Reduce Intake of Alcohol and Caffeine.
Take Omega-3 Fatty Acids 1 to 2 fish oil capsules can lower inflammation that helps growth of cancer cells.
Use Probiotics. If you are under chemo or radiation, probiotics can help put back healthy bacteria in your system. This can help boost immunity.
Drink Green Tea The EGCG in green tea has been shown to kill off leukemia cells in studies.

Lifestyle Changes for Leukemia

Avoid Infection. Leukemia can increase the risk of infections. Chemotherapy can also increase this risk. Stay away from people who are sick, eat healthy, and get plenty of rest. Practice good handwashing and get your flu shot.
Avoid Triggers. If your cancer goes into remission, avoid anything that puts you at risk for a relapse or other cancer. Don’t smoke, eat healthy, and use sunscreen.
Keep in Touch with Your Doctor. Make all your lab appointments, don’t miss any treatments, and go to all follow up appointments. Early detection is key in keeping leukemia in check.

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